Bel Canto on a "Percussion Instrument?"
© Peter Feuchtwanger 1982
From an Illustrated Lecture first given in German for the European Piano Teachers Association at Saarbücken, Germany. Autumn 1982. English Translation by Marina Horak.
We, pianists and piano teachers all too of ten hear experts tell us that the piano is a percussion instrument, and that it does not matter at all whether the key is depressed by a pencil or by a finger, whether it is a construction worker or a pianist who strikes the note, since the quality of the tone depends merely and entirely on the speed of the action.
However, most of us suffer when the piano is being tuned and the tuner hammers out every note "con furore".
We pianists try to produce a beautiful tone without consciously thinking how quickly or how slowly the key must be depressed. The great difference between a construction worker and a sensitive pianist is, after all, contained in the capacity of imagining the sound beforehand – if this is not considered as the first priority, then we can give up making music altogether.
On a string – or a wind–instrument, as with the human voice, we can actually make music. With the "Hammerklavier" we can only create an illusion. But it is precisely this reason, the conveying of illusions, that makes the piano such a fascinating Instrument. Like a magician, the pianist can conjure up sounds, which are inspired by and can resemble the tone of other instruments. Nevertheless the piano always preserves its own individual sound and character.
Recorded Example 1.
The piano is, no doubt, the most versatile instrument and is certainly the only instrument on which it is possible to play whole symphonies and operas. But, I need not dwell on this in my present company. What I wish to emphasize is that all great pianists and composers of the past – and even some contemporary ones – were inspired by the human voice.
Why is it that the pianists of the past were much more concerned with the beauty of tone than so many pianists of the present day? Perhaps it is because we live in a noisy world, we play in, larger concert halls, which makes us believe that we have to force the tone. We also allow ourselves to indulge in ugly. Body movements at the piano, movements that interfere with the tone production that would have been unthinkable a few generations ago.
Above all, I think, we must search for the reason in the fact that the art of singing, the art of Bel Canto has been lost. The singing of today has little to do with the past achievements in this field – and the pianist has lost the ideal example of Bel Canto from its Golden Age.
We can see from a concert announcement from 1904, that Clara Haskil, then 9 years old, features next to some of the greatest singers of the time: Francesco Tamagno (1850–1905), who was Verdi's first Otello, Leo Slezak (1873–1946), and the famous Bel Canto exponent, Emma Calvé (1858–1942).
Photo–copy. Ex: 1.
Later on, when I knew Clara Haskil, she told me how her uncle and guardian, together with her piano teacher, Prof. Robert, took her often to the Vienna Opera and how unforgettable those unique voices were for her.
Those first impressions, those glorious personalities have given the stamp to Haskil's style and to her incomparable sound.
Recorded Example 2.
The human voice is probably the most beautiful of all instruments, and as an instrument the voice has not changed throughout the centuries. What did change however, is the tone production and the training of the voice. Another change which must also be remembered is, that the female soprano and contralto replaced the castrati at a certain point in time.
In comparison to the singers of the Golden Age, the singer of today does not have the correct vocal training to create the difficult roles of the Bel Canto. Accuracy leaves a lot to be desired. In difficult passages we often do not hear the notes, but an approximation of these notes, most of the time – thankfully – drowned by the orchestra anyway.
But even in simple passages the voice is wrongly placed, the intonation is faulty and the so–called sliding up to a high note (not to be confused with a genuine portamento) has become an everyday mannerism, which is not heard only in third–rate opera houses, but in the greatest and most important opera houses of the world.
Contemporary descriptions of the singing art in the 19th century, together with the recordings – although, primitive and scratchy – still give us a clear insight into the Bel Canto during its last period of perfection.
Descriptions of the Baroque singers with their powerful voices – mostly castrati – and of the singers of the 19th century are so astonishingly alike that one must assume that the technique and voice training were much the same during both periods.
In order to sing correctly arias by Monteverdi, Carissimi, Purcell, Handel, Bach, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Rossini, Bellini or Donizetti, we should relearn the technique of Italian Bel Canto.
Even Wagner stressed that the new–founded "German opera" should be based on the art of Italian Bel Canto. And Alban Berg adopted the same idea in connection with Lulu, and with Marie in Wozzeck.
Extracts from an article by Alban Berg on 'The Voice in the Opera' in: "GESANG", published by Universal Edition, Vienna, 1929:
"... The demand for Bel Canto is also justified in today's operas, because it stands to reason that modern melodies which consist of such cantabile phrases – as for instance (one example from hundreds from Schönberg's 'Erwartung') this music example should not be sung less beautifully than 'La Donna e Mobile' if the right effect is to be achieved"...
"... There is no justification for the assumption that the German style of tonal or atonal music should only be treated in a declamatory way. …"
" … I can report from personal experience how astonished I was when recently a critic, again wrote, – "the Marie in Wozzeck was too ambitious in displaying her voice by singing to beautifully" – …
" ... The opportunity for the developement of Bel Canto should never be dispensed with."...
Many characteristics, described in the texts of Baroque and of the 19th century concerning voice training, would create considerable astonishment among the singers and singing teachers of today. Let me mention as an example that the development of the chest voice was of utmost importance but it must not be forgotten that transitions from chest to middle voice and then to head voice had to be seamless. We are very lucky, that we can listen to the last exponents of the genuine Italian Bel Canto, since a vast number of original recordings have been transferred onto LP discs.
Alas, only a few of today's pianists take advantage of this privilege, although pianists are the ones for whom it would be of the utmost importance to hear these recordings, time and time again. Only in this way it is possible to develop true understanding for the piano music of the 19th.century.
Vladimir Horowitz never stops talking about Bel Canto singers especially Bonci, 1870–1940, Battistini, 1856–1928, and Arthur Rubinstein recalled how he was moved to tears by the singing of Kathleen Ferrier.
We, pianists have the disadvantage – some people may call it an advantage that our tone is "ready–made", waiting for us in the form of a key on the keyboard. A string player or singer have to "create" their own tone.
But, if the pianist does not hear his tone before he plays it, for instance: if he does not hear the leading note B urging towards C differently from the B which comes from C and descends to A, if he cannot hear this difference and if he plays both B's in the same manner, then an essential aspect of music making is lost. A C sharp must be played differently from' a D flat, a minor sixth has a different inner tension than an augmented fifth. More than that, different intervals although written in the same rhythmical note value, have different inner tensions and one needs more time than another. Without the feeling for these subtle differences in timing, there is no genuine rubato.
Live Ex: 1.
If a string player plays with a pianist and compromises, that is to say: if he ajusts to the well–tempered tuning, then the result will be a lifeless and seemingly slightly out–of–tune ensemble. It is precisely through the difference of the quarter – and sometimes eighth–tones that the pianist can be inspired to produce the illusion of pure intonation, such as can be created by his partner. Many pianists think that they have to make an artificial rubato and do not understand that rubato emerges by itself through the understanding of intervals, through understanding of melodic, rhythmical and harmonic correlations. The rubato is contained in the text as the score presents is, we must only grasp the meaning of this or that sign – be it agogic or dynamic – in each particular situation.
It is obvious that the signs take on different meanings with different composers. Many musicians still believe that a sforzato sign always has a dynamic meaning whereas it is often an indication for subtly different timing. As soon as a pianist is confronted with a sforzato, he or she plays the relevant note or chord forte, con aggressione – even though in the context a pianissimo, con espressione would be much more to the point.
I shall come back to this aspect and explain it in more details later.
Recorded Example: 3.
The term Bel Canto is relatively late to appear and probably originates from Rossini. In his mature years, he stated that singers do not know anymore what a true Bel Canto style is. What he probably meant is that the art of beautiful singing has been lost.
As mentioned before the Bel Canto of the 19th century was modelled on the singing of the castrati who during the Baroque Era have influenced not only opera houses but entire kingdoms. As one can recognize both from musical examples in scores and from theoretical descriptions, the demands on the singing prowess were unimaginably high, seen from our point of view.
Who can imagine a Brünnhilde who had also to master a coloratura role like Zerbinetta.
Recorded Example: 4.
As the female voices of soprano and contralto eventually replaced the castrati on the stage, this also meant the beginning of the decline of Bel Canto. Every era mourns for the past. Rossini mourned the singers of his youth, the generations before him mourned for the singing art of the castrati. Yet not always is the loss identical with the worsening of standards, it can also indicate a change in style and aesthetics. As our time seems to be obsessed with authenticity and purity of style (we have pianists like Schnabel who wanted to clear the music from the exaggerations of the 19th century), it is good to ask ourselves whether we did actually come nearer to the style of Chopin and Mendelssohn or have we perhaps ended up on a sidetrack.
Chopin did not have any pupils of importance therefore the so–called Chopin tradition is built upon the school of Liszt. But Liszt's temperament was alien to Chopin, and Chopin was little enchanted by Liszt's interpretation of his works. Contrary to Chopin, Liszt loved pathos and grandeur, as well as extremes in dynamics. Chopin often complained about Liszt not being able to leave any of his pieces alone. Only once was his remark about Liszt positive, in connection with the Etudes which he also dedicated to him. "I wish I could play my Etudes as well as he does!" he exclaimed at one occasion. Whether he really admired Liszt's legendary virtuosity or whether this was said for diplomatic reasons, we may only speculate upon Chopin was much more classically orientated, his models were Bach and Mozart. He showed little understanding of most of Beethoven's works, even less for Schumann's. He was influenced by Hummel, Field, Spohr and Weber, and besides Polish folk music the other strong influence came from the Italian Bel Canto. In his youth, Paisiello and Rossini were his inspirations and later on, from the Paris period onwards – Bellini. While still in Poland, he sometimes used Rossini's themes in his works: one of which is to be found in an early Polanaise. Photo–copy Ex: 3.
Let us not forget that Rossini was also a master of the Opera Seria. With the exception of William Tell, he is known today almost exclusively for his Opera Buffa like Il Barbiere di Siviglia, La Gazza Ladra, La Cenerentola, L'Italiana in Algeri, Le Comte Ory etc.
On the other hand there are Moses, Armida, Tancredi, Otello, and many others, all of which are hardly ever performed nowadays. This is most regrettable as particularly Otello is a Bel Canto opera "par excellence" and has had – along with Bellini's and Donizetti's operas – a great influence on the Bel Canto of the 19th century. Wagner had reservations about Rossini, but was a great admirer of Bellini's Norma, and incorporated elements of the Italian Bel Canto into his German operas.
The role of Norma is perhaps the most difficult soprano role in the entire opera repertoire. The great singer Lilli Lehman (1848–1929) (NOT to be confused with Lotte Lehmann), who was equally celebrated as Brünnhilde and Norma, said: "It would be easier to sing Brünnhilde three times and Leonore ten times in a row than Norma just once." The famous aria Casta Diva is one of the most perfect examples of a Bel Canto aria. Photo–copy Ex: 4.
I would like to point out again, that in the later part of the last century there were other singers besides Lilli Lehmann who mastered both Wagner and Bellini, some of them including even the "Queen of Night."
From the following programme you can see that Maria Malibran (1808–1836) sang La Sonnambula and Fidelio on the same night. As you certainly know, the role of Amina in La Sonnambula is written for a lyrical coloratura, whereas Leonore requires a highly–dramatic voice.
Photo–copy Recorded Example: 5. Followed by Live Example: 2. Recorded Example: 5. & Live Example: 3.
Let us return to Chopin and let us listen to a live recording from 1954, with Clara Haskil playing the beginning of the second movement of the F minor Concerto. Clara Haskil's interpretation of this concerto was one of the greatest musical experiences for both Sir John Barbirolli and for Mario Maria Giulini. Arthur Hedley (1905–1969), the renowned Chopin expert, said to me after the performance of this concerto with Haskil and Giulini: "That is how Chopin himself must have played is''. Noteworthy is her flowing tempo of the so–called slow movement, which is played too slowly by nearly all pianists, I regret to say.
The same can be said about Mozart's slow movements.
Later on, I will go into more detail about the tempi in the Bel Canto piano music. On the Haskil recording, one observes how perfectly all ornamentation – trills, scales etc: – become part of the general structure of the movement. Everything becomes one line, everything is expressive yet nothing is exaggerated.
Recorded Example: 6.
This is how a great singer of the Golden Age would have sung a Bellini aria.
I said before that pianists of the past took much greater care about the tone production and I mentioned some of the reasons for it. I also pointed out the ugly physical movements of many of today's pianists, resulting from lack of control and from unnecessary tensions. Let us consider: if a person made such grotesque contortions in his daily life, let us say on the street, he or she could easily end up in a mental hospital. It is interesting, that the harpsichordist Girolamo Diruta wrote as early as the 16th century: "Unnecessary body movements are to be avoided at the keyboard ... the keys are to be depressed gently and should never be hit." The German word "Anschlag" (for touch) is perhaps – if taken literally – a reason why so many pianists in German speaking countries play from high above the key and not from the key.
The French word "le toucher" and "the touch" in English are much more appropriate to the idea of a Bel Canto at the piano. Even the Hebrew word "Magah" expresses not the idea of hitting but of touching.
Schubert complained about the "hacking way" of pianists and he himself played from near the keys. His playing (so was Beethoven's playing, incidentally) was described as "calm", without unnecessary movements, and according to Czerny, Beethoven mocked those who made grimaces while playing the piano.
Couperin, in his didactic work, wrote about beautiful bearing, about relaxation, and about the importance of holding fingers near to the keyboard, as the tone becomes disagreeable if the keys are hit from high above. This seems to be the exact opposite of today's widespread falsified French school.
Many will know what Bach wrote in the introduction to his Inventions: " ... above all however, a cantabile manner in the playing ..." His playing was so calm that one could barely see his fingers move. His keyboard music is very much influenced by the voice and emphasizes the vocal element. It is all the more incomprehensible why most pianists play Bach's music so aggressively, and mechanically.
C. P. E. Bach advised the pianists to listen to good singers and to sing their instrumental parts in order to develop the right understanding for the correct execution. Mendelssohn said: "To be able to express genuine emotions in piano music, one must listen to good singers. One learns from them much more than from any instrumentalists." In his letters from London we find valuable mention of singers like Malibran, Henriette Sontag (1806–1854) or Giuditta Pasta (1797–1865). His friendship with Jenny Lind (1820–1887) and his admiration for her influenced many of his works. Recorded Ex: 7. Schumann said: "Never miss an opportunity to hear a good opera", and recommended to pianists that they should sing in choirs.
Moscheles played Bach in a way which was felt vocally throughout. Clementis's mature style changed radically by having listened attentively to great singers. Many opera paraphrases and song transcriptions bear testimony of the fascination that singing held for Liszt, Czerny, Thalberg and their contemporaries. (Thalberg actually wrote a book: 'L'Art du Chant Appliqué au Piano').
I could bring many more interesting quotations by Hummel, Czerny and other composers and instrumentalists, all speaking about the bearing at the piano, the contact at the keyboard, about the importance of singing for the instrumentalist, but that would go beyond the boundaries of this lecture.
What I am saying about the importance of singing, does not apply only to opera however, but also to the realm of Lieder.
How wrongly the 'Lied' is sung nowadays and how Schubert
already complained about the same kind of shortcomings during his time, and how he himself played the piano, as we can see from
the following quotations taken from:
1. Goldschmidt Schuhen, Henschelverlag, Berlin, DDR 1954, Seite 87f. (About his playing:)
" ... Beautiful touch. quiet hand, clear agreeable playing, full of spirit and feeling. He still belongs to the old school of the good pianist where the fingers did not attack the poor keys like birds of prey.
2. 0. E. Deutsch. Schubert – The Document of His Life (Kassel, 1964); Letter by Schubert to his parents. July 25th.1825.
The variations from my new sonata for 2 hands which performed myself, not without some luck, were especially liked. People assured me that the keys under my hands turned into singing voices, which should it be true, pleases me greatly because the abhorrent hacking that is also characteristic of some excellent piano players, which I cannot stand, because it neither pleases the ear, nor the soul.
3. 0. E. Deutsch. Schubert – Reminiscences by his friends. (Leipzig 19 5 7) – Sonnleithner reports:
About the way in which Schubert's songs should be interpreted, there exist nowadays very strange views. Most singers seem to think that they have achieved the highest if they sing the songs in a way they think to be dramatic: by exaggerated declamation, by lisping, by exclaiming passionately, by slowing down etc: – I can only state that I'm always afraid if it is announced at a party that Schubert songs will be sung; because even skilled singers, and in their way, musically educated ladies and gentlemen, usually sin cruelly against poor Schubert. I heard him more than a hundred times, accompany and coach his songs. Above all he always kept the strictest even tempo, with the exception of the few cases when he explicitly indicates a ritardando, morendo, accelerando etc: Furthermore he never allowed a violent expression in the interpretation. The Lieder singer, as a rule, recounts only another persons experiences and emotions, he does not describe his own feelings. Poet, composer and singers have to conceive the Lied lyrically, not dramatically.
Especially with Schubert the true expression, and the deepest felling is already contained in the melody and excellently enhanced by the accompaniment. Everything which hinders the flow of the melody und the regularly moving accompaniment is contradicting the intention of the composer und destroys the musical effect.
Pianists, (not only singers,) can learn a great deal from this report. How often do we hear a teacher exclaim: "You must put more Passion into it." or "Play with more feeling" – as if passion and feeling can be poured out of a watering can into the musical work. The young musicians are either born with a passionate nature or they are not. It can, of course, be dormant and be awakened at the right time in their lives. But, all remarks like that Man achieve is a shallow imitation of feeling and passion, an artificial flower, a substitute for genuine emotion. The young pianist will often mistake passion for hysteria, strength for hammering (forte means strong, not loud in Italian) and feeling will be, alas, most often expressed by a yearning look and an exaggerated movement of the body.
Let us now say a few words about tempi in Chopin's and Mendelssohn's music. Most Bellini arias are sung too slowly nowadays, and from Chopin's metronome markings we could learn a lot about his own idea of tempi in his so–called slow compositions.
The study Op. 10 No: 3 is invariably played too slowly and the 5 plus 3 bar period gets thoroughly distorted. The tempo marking in the autograph is 'vivace', the second autograph is marked 'vivace ma non troppo' and is changed in the first edition to 'lento ma non troppo' – but with the metronome marking 100 to the quaver (eighth note). It is possible that Chopin feared the 'vivace' marking might cause pianists to play too fast. But, 'lento' means to Chopin quite a different thing than it does to Beethoven, Schumann or Liszt.
Photocopy and Recorded Example: 6.
The same applies to the Study Op. 10 No: 6 in E flat minor, with its metronome marking 69 to the dotted crochet (quarter note). If you try to sing the melody in the tempo most pianists play it the result is downright grotesque. If related to an Italian aria, we see that Chopin's metronome marking makes sense.
Photocopy and Recorded Example: 7.
Another study, in which the metronome marking is far quicker than the tempo we are used to hearing from modern pianists, is the Op. 25 No: 7 in C sharp minor. Bellini's Norma must have made a deep impression on Chopin – especially the highly dramatic aria at the beginning of the second act, when Norma is confronted by the dreadful decision to kill her children. The theme of this Study is based on the melody of this aria. Live Example 4. Recorded Ex.: 8. Live Ex.: 5.
Photocopy and Recorded Example: 8.
Another composer, greatly influenced by Bel Canto and preferring quicker tempi was Mendelssohn. Like Toscanini in our century, he is reputed to have conducted everything very quickly. But the next example, again by the Leschetizky pupil Ignaz Friedmann, will serve to show that even in the most rapid tempo, everything can remain clear and expressive.
Recorded Example: 9.
Hoping that I have convinced you about the importance of the art of the great singers of the past for pianists, I would now like to speak of Adelina Patti, (1843 – 1919). She is, through her records, one of the most important direct links with the BelCanto which had been such a strong influence on Chopin, Mendelssohn and others. Unfortunately, Patti was well past her prime when these recordings were made, but they still convey an insight into the style of her time.
As a very young girl, yet already a celebrated singer, she sang at a Soirée Rosina's aria from Il Barbiere, 'Una Voce Poco Fa'. Rossini was among the guests. When she was introduced to him, he complimented her on the singing, but asked her who the composer of the aria was: she had decorated the aria to such an extent that the melody could hardly be recognized. Although hurt by Rossini's remark, she was intelligent enough not to show her dismay and asked Rossini to re–study the aria with her (by the way, Rossini was an excellent baritone). Rossini was willing to teach her and from then on he often accompanied her at the piano. In this way Patti became trained in the best tradition of Sontag, Pasta, Malibran – all of whom Chopin indicated as an example to his pupils.
We know from the writings of one of Chopin's pupils, that Chopin spent a whole hour in order to make him grasp how to descend from G in bar 2 to C in bar 3 – in the Nocturne Op. 48 No: 1 in C minor. The G was either too long or too short. It was never right. (While teaching, Chopin often referred to how Pasta would sing a certain note.) On the G Chopin changes the pedal, and this shows us how Chopin's pedal indications are a means to achieving a very special, typical Chopin rubato. If one wishes to do the pedal change correctly, it needs a slight delay in order to get the G to sound cleanly. Arriving on C, we have to give the 'stolen' time back, therefore we have to rush a bit to maintain what was so important to Chopin: the constant pulse of the accompaniment opposed to the freedom of the melody.
Photocopy and Recorded Example: 9.
Let us reflect when playing these two notes, whether a singer would or would not make a portamento between them. It can help us to imagine a word and to see whether it would be appropriate for the two notes to be sung on two syllables or just one, whether the word would start with a vowel or with a consonant, or whether perhaps the C would start with a new Word ...
Live Example: 6.
All of these problems are much easier to solve if we have studied the arias of Bellini, who so greatly influenced Chopin. Even on his deathbed, he wished to hear once again his favourite aria 'Ah, Non Credea Mirarti' from La Sonnambula.
Photocopy and REcorded Example: 10.
The voice on the recording lacks the freshness of the young Patti, also the singer adopted during the course of years some mannerisms like certain distortions of rhythm, but it is nevertheless, according to connoisseurs, the most important vocal recording in the history of the gramophone. The importance lies in the fact that Patti took over Malibran's ornamentation, and Malibran was one of – if not the favorite singer of Bellini. Particularly noteworthy is her trill, then the magnificent endings of phrases and above all, the expression of the words, so important in the genuine Bel Canto style.
When asked, who his three favorite singers were, Verdi answered: "first Adelina, second Adelina and third Adelina!"
Recorded Example: 10.
It is incredible, nearly terrifying, how vast the number of singers, male and female was at the time of Patti and just after. Thousands of records bear witness to their phenomenal skill although the decline of Bel Canto had already set in and the Verismo style caused many singers to force the voice with exaggerated expression. Manuel Garcia 1805–1916, brother of Malibran and one of the most important teachers of Bel Canto, said that one should never use one's resources to the utmost, because this always leads to self–ruin and in the case of singers, to the ruin of the voice. Also pianists can learn from this statement, that moderation is not only a virtue but a necessity. Only discipline and reflection can lead us back to the great ideal of Bel Canto.
Recorded Example: 11.
To conclude this lecture, I would like to play you the last record of Kathleen Ferrier (1912–1953), who died so prematurely, and show you that even in the last decades it was still possible to realize the ideals of Schubert and his predecessors. Her voice was even in all its range from top to bottom, always dynamically balanced, of the greatest beauty whether in piano or in forte – this should be an ideal example to all pianists.
Recorded Example: 12.
Recorded Examples were: 1. WEBER. Sonata No: 1 in C. Slow Movement. Marian Friedman. 2. DONIZETTI. 'Una Futiva Lagrima'. John McCormack. ROSSINI. 'Ecco Ridente'. Fernando de Lucia. LOEWE. 'Canzonetta'. Hulda Laschanska. 3. MENDELSSOHN. Songs without words in F sharp & E flat. Ignaz Friedman. 4. GOUNOD. 'Ave Maria'. Alessandro Moreschi. HANDEL. 'Alessandro'. Clara Butt. TRAD: 'Ma Lisette'. Emma Calvé. 5. BELLINI. 'Casta Diva'. Giannina Russ. 6. CHOPIN. Concerto in F Minor. Clara Haskil. (Live Private Recording) 7. MENDELSSOHN. 'On Wings of Song'. Isobel Baillie. 8. BELLINI. 'Teneri, teneri, Figli'. Esther Mazzoleni. 9. CHOPIN. Etude in C. Op: 10. No: 7. Ignaz Friedman. 10. BELLINI. 'Ah non credea' Luisa Tetrazzini. 11. CHOPIN. Souvenir de Paganini. Marian Friedman. 12. HANDEL. 'He was despised'. Kathleen Ferrier.
Live Examples played by David Kuyken: 1. CHOPIN. Prelude in E Minor. 2. BELLINI., Piano reduction of Casta Diva. 3. BEETHOVEN. Sonata Op: 110. CZERNY. Study in A flat. Home, Sweet Home. Transcribed by THALBERG. On Wings of Song – MENDELSSOHN, Transcribed LISZT. FAURE. Song Without Words. 4. BELLINI. Piano reduction from Norma, Act 2. Study Op: 25. No: 7. 5. CHOPIN. Studies Op: 10. Nos: 3 & 6. 6. CHOPIN. Nocturne in C Minor. Op: 48. Sonata in B Minor. Op: 58. 3rd Movement. Nocturne in C sharp Minor & C Minor. Op: Posth: Piano reduction – BELLINI. Ah non credea mirarti.
PETER FEUCHTWANGER, pianist, teacher, jury member of international piano competitions reached an international reputation through his piano masterclasses which he has been giving for many years in Belgium, Brazil, Germany. Great Britain, France, Holland, Israel, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. Several of his students are winners of international piano competitions.
He has made a thorough study of the art of singing and instrumental playing of the 'Golden Age'. Peter Feuchtwanger is the Vice–President of the European piano Teachers Association U.K.